Since quite some time, the development and advancement of technology has
an impact on a few aspects of our lives and will continue to do so in the
future with more capability and unanticipated development. In our initiative,
we tried to establish a link between the development of technology and the
requirement for human comfort . The primary goal of this research is to
steer a wheelchair using human control. This project is primarily intended for
those with physical disabilities who rely on wheelchairs, especially those who
can't use their hands to drag their wheelchair due to an impairment. We
employed a head motion module in our system to detect the user's motion and
regulate the direction of the wheelchair .
People with quadriplegia are unable to utilise any of their extremities.
There are a variety of causes for such reduced mobility possibilities,
including paralysis, congenital deformities, arthritis, stroke, high blood
pressure, and degenerative disorders of the bones and joints. Quadriplegia can
also develop as a result of accidents or aging. Those who have such severe
disabilities are unable to conduct basic tasks like eating, using the bathroom,
and moving about . With various medical gadgets, a patient can maintain
mobility to a certain extent according to the severity of their handicap.
This paper describes the development of a head movement-controlled
microcontroller system for conventional electric wheelchairs. A prototype of
the system is put into use, and it is then experimentally tested. The prototype
is made comprised of a digital system, an accelerometer, a microprocessor, and
a mechanical actuator . The accelerometer is used to obtain information
regarding head movements. A novel technique is developed that makes use of a
microcontroller to analyse the sensor data . The mechanical actuator, which
is attached to the output of the digital system, moves the wheelchair joystick
in response to user commands. The microcontroller creates a cutting-edge
algorithm to process sensor data . As a result, the user's head movements on
an electric wheelchair dictate where the joystick is located. Numerous
varieties of conventional devices can be employed with the mechanical actuator.
The system's capacity to identify a user's command accurately is confirmed
through the experiment that was carried out . The experiment's results are
presented and discussed in this paper. Fig.1 displays a block diagram of
The wheelchair is a device that elderly and disabled people use for
transportation. There are a few different types of intelligent wheelchairs on
the market. It may be extremely difficult or impossible for a patient to use a
standard type of framework in specific circumstances, such as when they have
ALS or Parkinson disease and have total loss of movement. Motion in the area,
eye location, voice recognition, brain waves, and other elements all have an
impact on them. A self-propelled manual wheelchair typically has two small
caster wheels up front and two large wheels in back, together with a casing,
seat, and perhaps a couple footplates (footstools). They created the hardware
and software for the control system. The ability to adjust posture and drive a
wheelchair using voice commands has been realised. The hardware circuit and
software programme have been tested and debugged, and the voice control
wheelchair recognition rates for the same individual are satisfactory. But
because it can distinguish between so many different voices, it can't be used
in busy areas .
Head movement serves as an input
signal to the wheelchair, causing it to move in the desired direction. These
motions are tracked using a MEMS sensor. This sensor is attached to the head's
cap. The micro-controller receives these signals as inputs after trapping the
fluctuations. The microcontroller is now designed to make judgements based on
these variations, which influence how the wheelchair moves.
A chair will move to the right or
left if a person tilts their head to the right or left from above .
3.. HARDWARE DESIGN
3.1 ARDINO UNO
The programmable microcontroller
board known as Arduino UNO is inexpensive, adaptable, and simple to use for use
in a range of electrical applications. In addition to being able to control
relays, lights, servos, and motors as an output, this board can connect with
other Arduino boards, Arduino shields, and Raspberry Piboards.
2 -Ardino UNO
3.2 ESP8266 ESP-01
to wireless networks is provided to microcontrollers by the ESP8266 ESP-01
Wi-Fi module. The ESP-01 behaves as a minicomputer, therefore it serves as its
own SOC (System on a Chip) and doesn't necessarily need a microcontroller to
manage inputs and outputs like you would normally do with an Arduino, for
example. Depending on the version, an ESP8266 may have up to nine GPIOs
(General Purpose Input Output). So, we may either programme the ESP8266 to
function as both a microcontroller and a Wi-Fi network access point, or we can
give a microcontroller internet connectivity similar to what the Wi-Fi shield
does for the Arduino. As a result, the ESP8266 has a wide range of applications
and can assist you in saving cash and space in your projects [10-11].
3- ESP8266 ESP-01
3.3 RF TRANSMITTER
Transmitter Modules are extremely compact and operate within a wide voltage
range (3V-12V). Signals up to 100 meters can be sent using the inexpensive RF
transmitter. It is beneficial for the development of battery-powered,
short-range devices. These wireless receivers and transmitters are compatible
at 315 MHz. They work well with microcontrollers to build a relatively
straightforward wireless data link, and they are breadboard friendly.
4- RF transmitter
3.4 RF RECEIVER
Radio frequency (RF) receivers
are technological tools that distinguish radio waves from one another and
transform particular waves into audio, video, or data formats. An antenna is
used by RF receivers to pick up transmitted radio signals, and a tuner is used
to distinguish one particular signal from all the others.
5- RF receiver
3.5 GYRO SENSOR
Instruments that measure angular velocity include gyro
sensors. Angular rate sensors and angular velocity sensors are other names for
them. The change in rotational angle per unit of time is known as angular
velocity. The standard angular velocity measurement is degrees per second
(deg/s). A gyroscope sensor is a device that can measure and keep track of an
object's orientation and angular velocity. Compared to accelerometers, these
are more recent. Although they can only track linear motion, accelerometers can
assess an object's tilt and lateral orientation.
For gyroscope sensors, the words "angular rate
sensor" and "angular velocity sensor" are frequently used. When
it is challenging for humans to determine an object's orientation, these
sensors are used. The change in the object's rotational angle per unit of time,
measured in degrees per second, is known as angular velocity.
6- GYRO sensor
The twin H-Bridge motor driver L298N allows for
simultaneous speed and direction control of two DC motors. The module is
capable of driving DC motors with peak currents of up to 2A and voltage ranges
of 5 to35V.
Fig 7- Motor Driver L29801
A unique head
motion recognition algorithm is applied in this paper to enable wheelchair
control for quadriplegics. The method is used as a microcontroller system
algorithm. Experimental testing is done on a prototype of this system. The
experiment's outcomes were excellent. Specifically, following system adaptation
and a brief learning period, three distinct examinees executed instructions
with a success rate of 94.16%. When the user makes free head gestures that
aren't intended to send commands, more mistakes are made. In this instance, the
system recognizes a command that wasn't meant in 13.66% of the situations. A
mechanical and an electronic component make up the prototype. It is meant to
stand out for its inexpensive price and high level of versatility.