wall clocks are nevertheless not too different from analog clocks. Digital
clocks display time digitally. It handles the time functioning electronically
rather than the mechanical basis as used in analog clocks. In addition to it,
they are more reliable, accurate and precise in measuring time .
As we had discussed earlier, digital
wall clocks are installed in every public place to ensure the facilities of
describing time. In this project, we are proposing a digital wall clock system
for a particular classroom of an institution which focuses on describing date,
time along with temperature and total attendance of the class. Basically, it
will act as an information board displaying all the necessary details of the
day including the attendance of the student present in the class . It will exclude
the use of paper work and human efforts. It will ensure the chance of manual
error in keeping track of daily attendance of each and every class . In
addition to it, this system will be more cost
effective as it reduces the manpower
associated with the job of attendance management of students. On the other
hand, the main function of temperature sensor is to measure temperature for
various applications. It provide minute to minute update on the changing
temperature of the day which helps student s/teachers to take It helps in
maintaining laboratory temperature which is required for various scientific
2. PROPOSED METHOD
ESP-32 module handles all controlling tasks in this project. It basically
communicates with a real time clock (RTC), GSM module and temperature sensor
and displays the output on a seven-segment display. RTC is used to keep
track of time and is installed on every computer to keep track of time.
Attendance is displayed with the help of GSM module. It takes input in the form
of number determining the total present student in the class and represent it
on seven segment display as the output. Temperature Sensor senses the
atmospheric temperature and with the co-ordination of ESP-32 represent it on
the seven-segment display .
The block diagram for the technique is mentioned below-
3. HARDWARE DESIGN
line of inexpensive, low-power system-on-chip microcontrollers called ES ESP32
integrates Bluetooth in binary mode and Wi-Fi. The ESP32 series includes
built-in antenna switches, RF baluns, power amplifiers, low-noise admit
amplifiers, filters, and power-handling modules . It uses either a
TensilicaXtensa LX6 microprocessor in binary-core and single-core variations,
an Xtensa LX7 binary-core microprocessor, or a single-core RISC-V
Fig. 1- ESP 32
main operation processor's communication load is reduced by the ESP-32's
ability to operate as a fully independent system or as a slave device to a host
MCU. Through its SPI/ SDIO/ or I2C/ UART connections, the ESP-32 may connect to
other systems to provide Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capability.
It is capable of delivering dependable
performance in industrial settings and has an operating temperature range of
-40 to 125 degrees Celsius. ESP- 32's innovative estimate circuitry allows it
to effectively erase external circuit imperfections and adapt to changes in the
3.2 REAL TIME
A real time clock (RTC) is a piece of technology that counts
the seconds. Although computers, servers, and embedded systems are commonly
mentioned when using the word, RTC is present in almost any electronic
equipment that needs to maintain precise time of day .
Fig. 2- Real Time Clock
majority of RTC use crystal oscillators, although some provide the option to
use power line frequency. Typically, quartz clocks and timepieces operate at a
frequency of 32.768 kHz, which is also the frequency of the crystal.
Temperature has no effect on the size of the quartz tuning fork in these
crystals, hence it has no effect on frequency.
of its features are described below-
Low power consumption (significant when flowing from alternate source)
2) Frees the main network from time critical
More precise than distinctive system
SEVEN SEGMENT DISPLAY
A seven-segment display (SSD), sometimes known
as a seven-segment indication, is an alternative to the more intricate
dot-matrix displays for displaying decimal numbers. Digital watches, electronic
metres, and other electronic devices for presenting numerical data frequently
use seven segment displays. The seven segments are arranged in a rectangle with
one horizontal segment on the top, middle, and bottom, two perpendicular
segments on each side, and seven total segments. The segments are denoted by
the letters A to G, with the voluntary decimal point (sometimes known as a
"eighth segment," or DP) being used to depict non-integer numbers .
Fig. 3- SEVEN SEGMENT DISPLAY
3.4 GSM MODULE
GSM modem, also known as a GSM module, is a device that provides a wireless
data connectivity to a network using the GSM mobile telephone technology.
Mobile phones and other devices that communicate with mobile telephone networks
use GSM modems. To identify their device to the network, they need SIMs .
Fig. 4- GSM MODULE
These devices are
light and fluent to operate as well as having an unexpectedly low power
consumption for the volume of work they can do. Cellular couplings can be a
quick and effective way to get started with SMS adverts in network monitoring
solutions because a unique subscription to an individual service provider isn't
needed. It handles access to SIM, speech encoding and decoding, signaling and
distinct network related tasks.
4. SENSOR SECTION
4.1 TEMPERATURE SENSOR
This device uses a temperature sensor to show the ambient
temperature. There are numerous different types of temperature sensors, but the
most familiar way that's employed in their categorization is grounded on the
mode of connection that includes contact and noncontact temperature sensors.
exemplifications of contact sensors involve thermistors and thermocouples
because their contact with the things they measure is direct, whereas
noncontact type temperature sensors measure the heat source’s radiation. In
this project we use non-contact kind of temperature sensor for measuring
4- TEMPERATURE SENSOR
Table 1- comparison table showing
modification in projects
Display time in analog manner
Less precise and accurate
More precise and
Do not display attendance
Do not display temperature
More power consumption
Less power consumption equipment are used
There are many different styles of digital clocks available
nowadays. The majority of them are genuinely expensive and of poor quality.
Since they are built with timer ICs like 555 timers, the majority of those
cannot provide the time accurately for prolonged periods of time. Once more,
certain digital clocks experience data loss. Every time the power supply turns
off. However, the Real Time Clock module in our multipurpose digital wall clock
that monitors system time and updates makes it accurate. It features a built-in
power sensor circuit that recognises power outages and instantly switches to
the battery supply that is integrated with the RTC in the event of one. While our
created digital clock includes all of the time options and will also integrate
the alarm option in the upcoming interpretation, the majority of the digital
clocks in the requests do not cover all of the time functions. Still, a bonus
feature of our digital wall clock is the temperature and attendance display.
Therefore, this version of the digital clock is actually a reasonably priced,
reliable, and well-equipped gadget for the market's continued demand.