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Author(s): Sarfraj Ansari1, Santosh Yadav2, Nitish Kumar Rai3

Email(s): 1nitishrai1999@gmail.com

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    Department of Electronics and Communication, IIMT College of Engineering, Greater Noida, India

Published In:   Volume - 3,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2023


Cite this article:
Sarfraj Ansari, Santosh Yadav, Nitish Kumar Rai Surveillance drone Spectrum of Emerging Sciences, 3 (1) 2023, 33-36. 10.55878/SES2023-3-1-7

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1.      Introduction:

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are the full system that enables a drone to operate, although drones are frequently referred to as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The UAV, which has either fixed wings or a single or several rotary engines, is the brain of the UAS. For a drone to successfully take off, fly, and land, a combination of hardware and software components are required[1]. Drones are often controlled by ground control stations, have rotors or fixed wings, sensors, navigation systems, and gyroscopes (for stability). It is now obvious that aerial surveillance plays a crucial role in ensuring the safety and security of large crowds and sensitive areas. Certain locations, such industrial zones or places where safety is more important, need better maintenance and real-time response. A quick and accurate monitoring and response system is required to satisfy these demands in order to counter any danger, real or imagined. For security workers and emergency responders, sUAS systems offer a special tool that enables real-time visibility and prompt response when a breach takes place.

Fig. 1- Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)

The use of thermal imaging enables surveillance at night or in areas with little light, allowing security professionals to see weaknesses in buildings and infrastructure that are often invisible through standard monitoring. Ground workers have rapid access to high resolution images that may be used right away or stored for later use. As long as autonomous flights are done in conformity with current Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs), sUAS systems can be manually piloted or programmed to autonomously fly predetermined routes[2]. This allows ground operators to concentrate on other tasks.

 Technology:

 Drones are operated remotely and fuelled by either gasoline or batteries. A variety of sensors, including cameras, lidar, and infrared sensors, may be added to them, and these sensors can collect data for mapping, surveying, and monitoring. Drones can now move independently, avoid obstacles, and make judgements based on the data they gather thanks to developments in machine learning and artificial intelligence[3].

Fig. 2- Block diagram

Applications:

Drones may be used in a wide range of businesses. Drones are employed in agriculture for yield analysis, crop monitoring, and spraying. Drones are employed in the transportation industry for package delivery, search and rescue missions and surveillance. Drones are employed in the military for reconnaissance, surveillance, and targeted attacks. Drones are utilized for aerial photography and filmmaking in the entertainment sector[4].

2.         Hardware Design:

KK 2.0 Board:

This is the most stable KK board ever, and an Auto-level feature was made possible by updating the original KK gyro system to an exceptionally sensitive twin chip 3 axis gyro and single chip 3 axis accelerometer system. An Atmel Mega324PA 8-bit AVR RISC-based microprocessor with 32k of memory powers the KK2.0. The KK2.0 now has 8 motor output channels, making it possible to operate an octocopter with a total of 8 motors. Along with the board, a useful Piezo buzzer provides an audible alert when the board is activated and deactivated.

Fig. 3- KK2.0 Multi-Rotor Control Board

Specifications:

Dimensions: 50.5 x 50.5 x 12 mm, Weight: 21 gram (Inc Piezo buzzer), Atmega324 PA IC, Voltage Range: 4.8–6.0V, Standard 6 pin AVR interface, Receiver signal: 1520us (5 channels), ESC signal: 1520us

Transmitter FS i6x:

For safe and dependable vehicle control, the FS-i6X employs 2.4GHz AFHDS 2A (Automatic Frequency Hopping Digital System) technology. It can manage numerous vehicles at once and has a range of up to 500 meters. It also supports multiple channels[5].

The FS-i6X can be used with a variety of remote-controlled vehicles because it is compatible with a large number of receiver units. It has a small, lightweight design that makes it simple to transport and use in the field, and it is powered by four AA batteries.

Fig.4- AA Batteries

GoPro Camera:

Action sports, cinematography, journalism, and other professions all use GoPro cameras, as do athletes, explorers, and enthusiasts. The cameras are perfect for recording video in demanding conditions because they are waterproof, shockproof, and can be placed on a variety of surfaces[6].

‘The following are a few characteristics of GoPro cameras:

High-definition video: GoPro cameras can record video at up to 4K resolutions and 120 frames per second frame rates.

Image stabilization: To eliminate shaky video, several GoPro models come with built-in image stabilization.

Wide-angle lens: The wide-angle lens on GoPro cameras can record an expansive field of view[7].’

Voice control is a feature of several GoPro models that enables users to start and stop recording or taking pictures without touching the camera.

Frame DJI F450:

A quadcopter frame called the DJI F450 is intended for use in aerial photography and cinematography. It is strong and portable since it is built of light-weight components like fiberglass and exceptionally strong plastic.

The cockpit controller, motor controllers, and distribution of the energy board are all housed in the center plate of the frame, which also houses the electrical parts. The frame's arms may be removed, making it simple to replace damaged components.

Fig. 5- Frame DJIF450.

Bldc 2p 1000kv:

A BLDC (Brushless DC) motor with a rating of 2P 1000KV refers to the motor's specific parameters-:

2P refers to the number of poles in the motor's rotor. In a BLDC motor, the rotor is the rotating part that contains the permanent magnets, while the stator is the stationary part that contains the motor windings. A motor with 2 poles has a simple design and is typically used in low power applications.

1000KV refers to the motor's "kV rating," which is a measure of the motor's speed and voltage characteristics. The kV rating represents the number of RPMs (rotations per minute) that the motor will turn per volt applied. A motor with a 1000KV rating will rotate at approximately 1000 RPM per volt applied.

Fig. 6- Bldc 2p

ESC:

An ESC works by receiving a signal from a flight controller, transmitter, or other input device and then converts that signal into the appropriate voltage and current levels to control the motor. It regulates the power input to the motor and adjusts the RPM of the motor accordingly.

ESCs have the following key characteristics:

BEC (Battery Eliminator Circuit): This is a feature built into many ESCs that powers the receiver and other electronics in the RC model.

Many ESCs allow users to customize various settings such as motor timing, throttle response, and brake settings.

To prevent damage to the motor and other components, ESCs may include safety features such as over-temperature protection, over-current protection, and low-voltage protection.

Fig. 7- ESCs

3.         POWER SUPPLY:

11.3v LiPo Battery:

An 11.3V LiPo (Lithium Polymer) battery is a rechargeable battery made up of multiple cells connected in series to provide a total voltage of 11.3V. LiPo batteries are widely used in remote-controlled models like drones, RC cars, and airplanes, as well as portable electronic devices like cameras and smartphones.

LiPo batteries outperform other types of rechargeable batteries in several ways, including:-

-LiPo batteries have a high energy density, which means they can store a lot of energy in a small and lightweight package.

-High discharge rates: Because LiPo batteries can deliver high currents, they are ideal for high-performance applications like racing drones and RC cars.

-LiPo batteries have a low self-discharge rate, which means they can hold their charge for longer periods of time when not in use.

-Size and shape can be customized: LiPo batteries can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes to fit specific devices and applications.

Fig. 8- LiPo Battery

4. CONCLUSION:

In this project, an autonomous drone was developed.

The majority of the other gear in the drone is controlled by an fsi 6x. The KK 2.0 board is also utilized by the drone for the live streaming component. The drone's flight is managed and observed by the mission planning software. Therefore, by creating the drone with the capacity to do the vast majority of the needed activities we initially had, we have achieved our objective of finishing the primary project.



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