Article in HTML

Author(s): Seema Nayak1, Shivam Kumar2, Archit Aggarwal3, Nikhil Kumar4



    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering IIMT College of Engineering, Greater Noida, UP, India

Published In:   Volume - 3,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2023

Cite this article:
Seema Nayak, Shivam Kumar, Archit Aggarwal, Nikhil Kumar Detection of microparticles through the LoRa module. Spectrum of Emerging Sciences, 3 (1) 2023 39-43. 10.55878/SES2023-3-1-9

  View PDF

Please allow Pop-Up for this website to view PDF file.

I.                INTRODUCTION

PM2.5 particles come out mainly from the chimneys of industries. These particles by entering the respiratory canal of the workers and has an adverse effect on their respiratory health.

The short-term limit (24-hour or daily average) for PM2.5 set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is 35 micrograms per cubic meter of air (g/m3), whereas the long-term level (year average) is 12 g/m3.


The placenta can be impacted by PM in pregnant women, resulting in decreased blood flow and decreased oxygen and nutrition delivery to the fetus [1]. The increasing concentration of PM2.5 in the ambient air causes the air to seem hazy and reduces visibility. These circumstances are comparable when there is a lot of humidity or fog.

In this model, we detect these fine particles suspended in the air using a PM2.5 sensor and use it to take

precautionary step. In this PMS5003 sensor is used to detect these microparticles[2].

Two modules are built namely:

i) Transmitter

 ii) Receiver

i) Transmitter:

The transmitter consists of an Arduino board, a LoRa module, and a PMS5003 sensor. The sensor is used for detecting microparticles present in the air. The sensor through the microcontroller sends the data wirelessly to the receiver using the LoRa module[3].

ii) Receiver:

The receiver consists of an Arduino board, a LoRa module, and an analysis module. The LoRa module is used to receive data wirelessly over a long range. This is interfaced with a microcontroller which is programmed in to an analysis module to analyzeresults[4].

II.              ARCHITECTURE



















Fig.1:  Block Diagram of the Proposed Model.

III.            ARDUINO UNO

Because all of the Arduino hardware is open-source, it is so widely available and affordable in the area. It has benefits to be open-source since anyone can use the design and make changes, and anyone can use the hardware design to manufacture their own product[5]. Another important benefit of being open-source is that local businesses can produce prototypes of the products, making them more available and inexpensive to local customers, particularly in the case of hardware. All of these benefits help explain why Arduino is so popular, reasonably priced, and constantly improving.

It is important to understand that Arduino offers a number of boards, each of which runs at a different level of competence and has a distinct use. This is because Arduino doesn't only give one type of hardware. One of the most fundamental and well-liked boards that Arduino offers is the Arduino Uno. This is because it has an ATMega328 microcontroller, which is suitable for the majority of basic beginner-level projects and is both affordable and powerful. after being accustomed to the Arduino IDE. The Nano range was created to preserve the form factor as tiny as possible, as the name implies[6].



Rounded Rectangle: Graphical analysis on PC display


Fig.2: Arduino UNO board

1. USB: can be used to connect to the IDE and supply power.

2. Barrel Jack: a power supply connector

3. Voltage regulator: controls and maintains output and input voltages

4. Crystal Oscillator: controls processor frequency and keeps time.

5. Resetting the Arduino Uno can be done using the reset pin.

6. 3.3V pin: 3.3V output capability

7. Can be utilized as a 5V output on the 7.5V pin.

8. The circuit can be grounded using the GND pin.

9. The board can receive power from the Vin pin.

10. Analogue pins (A0-A5): They can be utilized to read analog signals onto the board.

11. Microcontroller (ATMega328): the board's logical and processing unit

12. ICSP pin, often known as SPI, is a programming header on the board.

13. Power indication LED: Displays the board's current power condition.

14. RX and TX LEDs: When transmitting or receiving serial data, respectively, the receive (RX) and transmit (TX) LEDs flicker.

15. Digital I/O pins: 14 pins with the ability to read and produce digital signals; six of these pins additionally have PWM capabilities.

16. An external reference voltage can be set as the highest limit for the analog pins using the 16.AREF pins.

17. The board can be reset using the reset button.


IV.            PMS 5003 Sensor

The PMS5003 is a sort of digital, all-purpose particle concentration sensor that may be used to measure the concentration of particles in the air. As well as the sensor can be connected to a range of equipment that measures the number of suspended particles in the air or other environmental improvements in order to supply correct concentration data on time equipment.




Fig.3:PMS5003 sensor

V.              LoRa MODULE

For Internet of Things (IoT) and machine-to-machine (M2M) applications, LoRa, a wireless technology, is essential. It was created for low-power, wide-area networks (LPWANs). CSS (chirp spread spectrum), a component of LoRa, was developed by Semtech. It focuses on asynchronous, secure bi-directional communication that is cheap and best for battery life[7].

Since CSS broadcasts a signal using the complete bandwidth allotted to it, it is resilient to channel noise and excellent at handling interference and overlapping networks. The technology is getting a lot of interest in IoT networks being deployed by wireless network operators and the government. It offers high penetration, low bandwidth, low energy, wide area, and secure data. It operates a separate segment that is not connected to Wi-Fi or a cellular network[8].

The unlicensed, globally accessible frequencies below 1 GHz are used by the LoRa wireless system. The most popular frequencies are: It is provided at no additional cost[9].

• Europe uses 868 MHz

• For North America, 915 MHz

• 433 MHz band for Asia

When the nodes are inside buildings, using frequencies lower than those of the 2.4 or 5.8 GHz ISM bands makes it possible to achieve much better coverage, which allows for excellent penetration through tall walls and buildings.

• Long Range: In rural areas, a single LoRa base station can connect to sensors that are more than 15 to 30 miles away while also enabling deep penetration capability for dense urban environments and indoor coverage.

• Low Cost: LoRa lowers end-node sensor prices as well as up-front and ongoing infrastructure expenses.

• Standardised: To accelerate acceptance and deployment, LoRa WAN ensures interoperability among apps, IoT solution providers, and telecom operators.

• Low Power: The LoRa WAN protocol was created expressly for low power and allows for a battery life of up to three years.

The development of IoT systems and solutions could make full use of LoRa-based technologies[10].

In addition to having a long battery life and being inexpensive, coverage is one of the most crucial performance indicators for low power wide area networks (LPWAN). The LoRa module excels at this attribute[7]. It also provides high interference immunity and meets all the LoRa WAN protocol specifications.

The DTDS 622 MEVB comes in a very compact form that houses the DTDS 622 module and can be plugged into a socket and run directly. LoRa is designed for deployments where end devices have limited energy and can send only a few bytes at a time. [3].

Power is supplied directly through the pins on the board. The input power range is 3V-3.7V (3.3V typical) and the DIN pin is able to tolerate up to 5V. Characteristics of LoRa are based on three basic parameters: Code Rate (CR), Spreading Factor (SF), and Bandwidth (BW)[1]

Fig.4: Diagram of LoRa module

Table 1: Details of pin.

Pin No.

Pin Name

Pin Type

Pin Description




Supply for the Board




Transmit to Host




Receive from Host



Reserved for future use



Reserved for future use



No Connection




Digital I/O



No Connection




Digital I/O







Digital I/O




Digital I/O



No Connection



No Connection




I2C Data




I2C Clock




Digital I/O




Digital I/O




Digital I/O




Digital I/O



A display module is used for analyzing data which is interfaced with the Arduino of the receiver. Data received from the transmitter is used for analysis using this module.


VI.            RESULTS


Fig.5:Proposed model

In this paper, we presented the idea of detection of microparticles through the LoRa module in which we used two LoRa evaluation boards, 2 Arduinoboards, and a PMS5003 sensor to solve the problem faced by the workers of a factory so that precautionary measures can be undertaken. It is a cost-effective and low-maintenance product and it requires less hardware. The data from the sensor are transmitted using the LoRa module which is then used for the assessment of particulate matter and for precautionary steps to be taken.


Fig.6: Transmission of data through the LoRa module


Fig.7:Output of PMS5003 sensor

Fig.8: Graphical representation



This module uses the PMS5003 sensor to find out particles in the atmosphere that are small enough to enter human lungs and cause health problems. The data through the sensor is then fed to the LoRa transmitter interfaced through ARDUINO. The transmitter transmits the data to another similar module acting as a receiver located in the data room. The data is then displayed to caution people about the concentration of microparticles

Related Images:

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Seema Nayak, Shivam Kumar, Archit Aggarwal, Nikhil Kumar

DOI: 10.55878/SES2023-3-1-9         Access: Open Access Read More